Analysis of statistical data of the labor market and pay gap. Opinions of women surveyed in 2015.
The relatively highest disproportion between women’s and men’s earnings is observed in a group of employees with basic vocational education and the pay gap is over 30%. To estimate how serious is the problem of inequalities between women and men in labor market in Poland Karat analyzed the statistical data on the working activity of women and men with basic vocational education (by age, economic sector and form of employment) as well as the wage disparities between them.
Over the years 2010-2015 the employment rate of women improved but it does not affect women with the basic vocational education. The employment rates for women in total increased by 2 percentage points, but the same rates for women who graduated from the vocational schools decreased by 1 percentage point. When it comes to the structure of the employed by sex and education level, among the total employed, women account for 45% and men 55%. However, the women with vocational education account for only 31.4% while the men with that level of education for 68.6%. Most of the employed women have a university degree – 41,5% (the women with basic vocational education 18%), but most of the employed men graduated from the basic vocational schools – 32.2% (the men with higher education 26%).
The fact that the women dominate among the employed with higher education (women 56.6% and men 43.4%) does not mean that they earn more then the men. The women earn less than men irrespective of their education, sector of economy or industry. The stereotypical perception of the roles of men and women on the labor market and in society affects their choices of professions. The cultural conditions make the “men’s professions” better paid then professions traditionally chosen by women.
As there are significant differences in the remuneration of women and men with basic vocational education it is justified to promote the campaigns to overcome the stereotypes about the professions good for men and those good for women and to encourage the girls to choose educational paths in better-paid professions.
You can find more about this in our report “Pay gap between women and men with basic vocational education”.